Above, Dog Tick – Photo by Dann Thombs via Flickr, CC by-nc-nd
This past winter was terrible for us humans. To add insult to injury, it was great for ticks. Ticks can stay insulated under the snow, and the excess moisture gives them all they need to thrive. As we move into spring and summer, it’s time to start thinking about how to stay safe from ticks when you hit the trails.
Types of Ticks
Deer ticks (right) are responsible for causing Lyme disease, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. About 25% to 30% of the nymph-stage deer ticks in the New England are naturally infected with Lyme disease. Nearly all of these infected ticks will cause Lyme if not removed. Both nymph (young) and adult deer ticks will bite humans. The highest risk of being bitten by a deer tick occurs throughout the spring, summer and fall seasons. However, adults can also be out searching for a host any time winter temperatures are above freezing. Deer tick nymphs are the size of a poppy seed and deer tick adults are the size of a sesame seed.
Dog ticks (photo at top) are responsible for causing Rocky Mountain spotted fever and certain types of tularemia. In general, only the adult dog tick will bite humans. The highest risk of being bitten by a dog tick occurs during the spring and summer seasons. Dog ticks adults are about the size of a watermelon seed.
Tips for Avoiding Them
Before You Leave Home
- Discuss ticks – Make sure everyone you are hiking with is aware of the dangers and knows how to stay safe.
- Clothing – No sandals, wear high socks and long pants – Pull socks over pant legs – Wear long sleeve shirt, hats, light colored clothing.
- Pretreat clothing – Socks, long pants, and shirt can be sprayed with Permethrin and then let dry 2 to 4 hours. Permethrin binds tightly to clothing and once dry will not get on your skin. Permethrin kills ticks on contact with treated clothing. Permethrin treatment lasts for 6 washings or 6 weeks. Store treated clothing in a plastic bag and hand wash and dry at low temp.
On The Trails
- Use bug repellent – Children over 2 months of age can use 10-15% DEET to repel ticks – Spray boots, clothing and exposed skin. Do not spray face.
- Stay on trails – Do not hike off trail in high brush, weeds or grass. Do not sit or lie in leaf litter.
After Your Hike
- Perform tick check – Divide group into buddies and perform tick-check at end of hike – ticks are tiny, so look for new “freckles” in the following places:
– Inside and behind the ears
– Along your hairline
– Back of your neck
– Behind your knees
– Between your toes
- Perform your check as soon as possible – the risk of Lyme Disease increases with a longer attachment time.
What To Do If You Find A Tick
If bitten by a tick, use a “TickEase Tick Remover” with slotted scoop and thin tweezers to remove tick. Try to avoid squeezing the tick’s body to prevent from injecting yourself with the virus.
Scotch tape the tick to a white card. Get the tick tested for Lyme disease. For testing see following two resources:
- Mass. Dept. of Heath is a good source of info
- Jennifer Murphy – Winchester Board of Health, 781-721-7121 – does free testing for town residents – just scotch-tape tick to a note card and deliver it to Jennifer.
- “Lyme Disease What Is It?”- Sponaugle Wellness (Fla.)
- See also “Being Outdoors” information on Friends of the Fells youth programs site
H/T to our super volunteers Dennis Crouse and Laurie Adamson for the info in this post.